**Introduction to Business Statistics**

By Statistics we mean aggregates of facts affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes, numerically expressed, enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standards of accuracy, collected in a systematic manner for a predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each other.

Business statistics is simply the use of various statistical tools to business data.

**Introduction to Research Methodology**

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them.

**About Business Statistics and Research Methods MCQs**

In this post you will get **Business Statistics and Research Methods MCQs** which are especially for UGC NET and SET exams of various states such as SLET NE, GSET, WBSET. JKSET, Rajasthan SET, MP SET, MH SET, KSET and Kerala SET.

We try to cover all the questions asked in above mentioned exams relating to **Business Statistics and Research Methods MCQs. **Visit our website regularly for latest contents.

### Business Statistics and Research Methods MCQs for UGC NET and SET Exams [2023]

**1. A line graph indicates: [GSET]**

(A) Comparison.

(B) Variation.

(C) Range.

(D) All of the above.

Ans: (D) All of the above.

**2. _______ describes the present state of affairs as it exists without having any control over variables. [GSET]**

(A) Analytical Research.

(B) Descriptive Research.

(C) Applied Research.

(D) Distinctive Research.

Ans: (B) Descriptive Research.

**3. Match the items of List I with the items of List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: [GSET]**

List I |
List II |

(a) Random sample selection. (b) Arranging data in columns and rows. (c) Measures of central tendency. (d) Data collection. (e) Dividing into homogeneous groups. |
(1) Tabulation. (2) Questionnaire. (3) Lottery method. (4) Analysis of date. (5) Classification. |

Codes:

(A) (a)-(1), (b)-(2), (c)-(3), (d)-(4), (e)-(5).

(B) (a)-(4), (b)-(3), (c)-(2), (d)-(5), (e)-(1).

(C) (a)-(2), (b)-(4), (c)-(1), (d)-(3), (e)-(5).

(D) (a)-(3), (b)-(5), (c)-(4), (d)-(2), (e)-(1).

Ans: Question Number 13 is not considered for evaluation, hence “z” is used.

**4. Stratified sample is _______ within and _______ between the strata. [GSET]**

(A) Homogeneous, Heterogeneous.

(B) Homogeneous, Independent.

(C) Heterogeneous, Homogeneous.

(D) Heterogeneous, Independent.

Ans: (A) Homogeneous, Heterogeneous.

**5. What is the median of the sample 5, 5, 11, 9, 8, 5, 8? [GSET]**

(A) 5.

(B) 6.

(C) 8.

(D) 9.

Ans: (C) 8.

**6. Copy testing is also known as: [GSET]**

(A) Pre-testing.

(B) Copy writing.

(C) Concurrent testing.

(D) Preview.

Ans: (A) Pre-testing.

**7. t-test is a _______. [GSET]**

(A) Parametric Test.

(B) Non-Parametric Test.

(C) Large Sample Test.

(D) None of the above.

Ans: (A) Parametric Test.

**8. In chi-square test of hypothesis, null hypothesis state that variables are _______. [GSET]**

(A) Dependent.

(B) Independent.

(C) Cause and effect.

(D) Random.

Ans: (B) Independent.

**9. Which one among the following statement is true in the context of the testing of hypothesis? [GSET]**

(A) It is only the alternative hypothesis that can be tested.

(B) It is only the null hypothesis that can be tested.

(C) Both the alternative and the null hypothesis can be tested.

(D) Both the alternative and the null hypothesis cannot be tested.

Ans: (B) It is only the null hypothesis that can be tested.

**10. Degree of Freedom for Chi-square test in case of contingency table of order (5×5) is [GSET]**

(A) 25.

(B) 16.

(C) 10.

(D) 5.

Ans: (B) 16.

**11. Student’s t-test was designed by [GSET]**

(A) R. A. Fisher.

(B) Wilcoxon.

(C) Wald Wolfowitz.

(D) W.S. Gosset.

Ans: (D) W.S. Gosset.

**12. In stratified sampling, size of a sample depends on: [GSET]**

(A) Homogeneity of a stratum.

(B) Number of stratums.

(C) Stratum size.

(D) Cost allocated for taking a sample.

Ans: (C) Stratum size.

**13. Which of the following is not a type of bar chart? [GSET]**

(A) Sub-divided.

(B) Percentage.

(C) Ogive.

(D) Multiple.

Ans: (D) Multiple.

**14. Which of the following is not a data collection and summarization technique? [GSET]**

(A) Principal Component Analysis.

(B) ANOVA.

(C) Factor Analysis.

(D) Canonical Correlation Analysis.

Ans: (B) ANOVA.

**15. Most of the non-parametric methods utilize the following measurement: [GSET]**

(A) Nominal scale.

(B) Ordinal scale.

(C) Ratio scale.

(D) Interval scale.

Ans: (C) Ratio scale.

**17. Which one of the following is non-parametric test? [GSET]**

(A) F-test.

(B) t-test.

(C) Z-test.

(D) Chi-square test.

Ans: (D) Chi-square test.

**18. The ‘cause and effect’ relationship between the two variables is calculated by applying one of the following statistical methods. Which one is that? [GSET]**

(A) Correlation Analysis.

(B) Regression Analysis.

(C) Skewness.

(D) ANOVA.

Ans: (B) Regression Analysis.

**19. Here is incomplete statement: [GSET]**

**“Random sampling” is one of the important technique of data collection. This technique is also known as _______. **

**Which one of the following will correctly complete it?**

(A) Normal sampling.

(B) Poisson sampling.

(C) Probability sampling.

(D) Non-systematic sampling.

Ans: (C) Probability sampling.

**21. Given: [GSET]**

**Sum of squares between the columns = 304.22.**

**Degree of freedom = 2. **

**What will be the F-value under the method of Analysis of Variance? **

(A) 9.85.

(B) 19.70.

(C) 10.85.

(D) 20.70.

Ans: (A) 9.85.

**23. When the hypothesis is false and out test rejects it, the decision will be: [GSET]**

(A) incorrect decision.

(B) having type-I error.

(C) correct decision.

(D) having type-II error.

Ans: (C) correct decision.

**25. The organised process or set of steps that needs to be followed to develop an information system is known as: [GSET]**

(A) The analytical cycle.

(B) The design cycle.

(C) The program specification.

(D) The system development life cycle.

Ans: (D) The system development life cycle.

**26. In a Chi-Square analysis, the table has 5 columns, and 4 rows. The degrees of freedom will be equal to: [GSET]**

(A) 12.

(B) 20.

(C) 16.

(D) 8.

Ans: (A) 12.

**29. If the correlation coefficient is 0.8; the percentage of variation in the dependent variable explained by the variation in the independent variable is: [GSET]**

(A) 0.80%.

(B) 80%.

(C) 0.64%.

(D) 64%.

Ans: (D) 64%.

**30. In a linear regression y = a + bx, b indicates [GSET]**

(A) slope.

(B) intercept.

(C) variable.

(D) correlation.

Ans: (A) slope.

**31. If the correlation coefficient is a positive value, then the slope of the regression line [GSET]**

(A) must also be positive.

(B) can be either negative or positive.

(C) can be zero.

(D) can be infinite.

Ans: (A) must also be positive.

**32. The distribution that is formed by all possible values of a statistics is known as [GSET]**

(A) Hypergeometric distribution.

(B) Normal distribution.

(C) Sampling distribution.

(D) Binomial distribution.

Ans: (C) Sampling distribution.

**33. Classification of M. Com. Students according to their specialization is an example of the following: [GSET]**

(A) Nominal data.

(B) Ordinal data.

(C) Interval data.

(D) Ratio data.

Ans: (A) Nominal data.

**34. Type-I error is defined as the probability to: [GSET]**

(A) accept a hypothesis when it is true.

(B) accept a hypothesis when it is false.

(C) reject a hypothesis when it is false.

(D) reject a hypothesis when it is true.

Ans: (D) reject a hypothesis when it is true.

**35. Which of the following is not a standard type of sampling? [GSET]**

(A) Stratified sampling.

(B) Simple cluster sampling.

(C) Cluster sampling.

(D) Systematic sampling.

Ans: (B) Simple cluster sampling.

**36. Which of the following statements, on testing of a hypothesis is always true? [GSET]**

(A) When the null hypothesis is rejected at 5% level of significance, it is always rejected at 1% level also.

(B) When the null hypothesis is rejected at 1% level of significance, it is also rejected at 5% level also.

(C) When the null hypothesis is not rejected at 1%, it is rejected at 5% level of significance.

(D) No definite assertion can be made.

Ans: (B) When the null hypothesis is rejected at 1% level of significance, it is also rejected at 5% level also.

**37. Which of the following software has applications in both Mathematics and Statistics? [GSET]**

(A) SPSS.

(B) SAS.

(C) R.

(D) None of the above.

Ans: (D) None of the above.

**38. Which among the following is not sampling based on probability? [GSET]**

(A) Random Sample.

(B) Strata Sample.

(C) Cluster Sample.

(D) Quota Sample.

Ans: (D) Quota Sample.

**39. Which of the following is not a sampling methodology? [GSET]**

(A) Validity sampling.

(B) Stratified random sampling.

(C) Simple random sampling.

(D) Quota sampling.

Ans: (A) Validity sampling.

**40. You obtained a sample of data that has relatively normally distributed and had no extreme scores. Which measures of central tendency you to know average of this information? [GSET]**

(A) Mean.

(B) Median.

(C) Mode.

(D) Harmonic mean.

Ans: (A) Mean.

**41. The risk of return from investment can be measured through [GSET]**

(A) Variability of rates of return from average rate of return as derived in the form of standard deviation.

(B) Variability of rates of return from average rate of return as derived in the form of median.

(C) Comparison of return from investment with industry returns.

(D) Comparison of return from investment with competitor’s return.

Ans: (A) Variability of rates of return from average rate of return as derived in the form of standard deviation.

**42. In a Unimodal and symmetrical distribution, the relationship between averages is like this [GSET]**

(A) Mean > Median > Mode.

(B) Mean < Median < Mode.

(C) Mean = Median = Mode.

(D) Mean < Median > Mode.

Ans: (C) Mean = Median = Mode.

**43. Which one among the following is relative measure of dispersion? [GSET]**

(A) Mean deviation.

(B) Range.

(C) Coefficient of variation.

(D) Standard deviation.

Ans: (C) Coefficient of variation.

**44. Which of the following is not a measure of Central Tendency? [GSET]**

(A) Mode.

(B) Mean.

(C) Range.

(D) Median.

Ans: (C) Range.

**46. Which of the following measures of central tendency is not sensitive to extreme values? [GSET]**

(A) Mean.

(B) Median.

(C) Mode.

(D) Harmonic mean.

Ans: (B) Median.

**47. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a test for equality of _______. [GSET]**

(A) Standard deviation.

(B) Mean.

(C) Percentage.

(D) Only two parameters.

Ans: (B) Mean.

**48. The mean of ten numbers is 58. If one of the number is 40, what is the mean of the other nine? [GSET]**

(A) 54.

(B) 60.

(C) 18.

(D) 56.

Ans: (B) 60.

**49. _______ theory is the study of people making interdependent choices. [GSET]**

(A) Game theory.

(B) Chaos theory.

(C) Motivation theory.

(D) Leadership theory.

Ans: (A) Game theory.

**50. Which of the following is a Non-parametric Test? [GSET]**

(A) F-test.

(B) Chi-square test.

(C) Z-test.

(D) t-test.

Ans: (B) Chi-square test.

**51. As the sample size becomes larger, the type-I error probability _______. [GSET]**

(A) Increase.

(B) Does not change.

(C) Decrease.

(D) Infinite.

Ans: (B) Does not change.

**52. The probability of rejecting the Null Hypothesis, when is it true, is called: [GSET]**

(A) Type-I error.

(B) Type-II error.

(C) Probable error.

(D) Standard error.

Ans: (A) Type-I error.

**53. A bag contains 5 red balls and some blue balls. If the probability of drawing a blue ball is double that of a red ball, then the number of blue balls in a bag is [GSET]**

(A) 5.

(B) 10.

(C) 15.

(D) 20.

Ans: (B) 10.

**54. Multiple Regression Analysis, Factor Analysis, Multivariate Analysis of Variance, etc. are examples of: [GSET]**

(A) Inferential analysis.

(B) Descriptive analysis.

(C) Discrepancy analysis.

(D) Directive analysis.

Ans: (B) Descriptive analysis.

**55. In regression line, what Analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculates? [GSET]**

(A) z-score.

(B) chi-square.

(C) t-scope.

(D) F-ratio.

Ans: (D) F-ratio.

**56. The SD Scale was developed by Charles F. Osgood. The SD Scale is: [GSET]**

(A) Standard Deviation Scale.

(B) Semantic Differential Scale.

(C) Self Description Scale.

(D) Simple Definition Scale.

Ans: (B) Semantic Differential Scale.

**57. Which one of the following is not a method of collecting primary data? [GSET]**

(A) Schedules and Questionnaires.

(B) Direct Personal Investigations.

(C) Computerised database.

(D) Projective Techniques.

Ans: (C) Computerised database.

**58. Which one of the following is non-probability sampling technique? [GSET]**

(A) Random sampling.

(B) Snow Ball sampling.

(C) Stratified sampling.

(D) Sequential sampling.

Ans: X

Codes:

(A) (a)-(4), (b)-(3), (c)-(1), (d)-(2).

(B) (a)-(1), (b)-(2), (c)-(3), (d)-(4).

(C) (a)-(4), (b)-(3), (c)-(2), (d)-(1).

(D) (a)-(3), (b)-(1), (c)-(4), (d)-(2).

Ans: (A) (a)-(4), (b)-(3), (c)-(1), (d)-(2).

**60. Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation between two variables X and Y can be calculated by: [GSET]**

(A) Co-variance between the variables divided by the product of their standard deviations and N.

(B) Co-variance between the variables multiplied by the product of their standard deviations.

(C) The product of the standard deviations of the variables divided by the product of total deviations of X-variable and total deviations of Y-variable taken from their respective averages.

(D) Co-variance between the variables divided by the product of their arithmetic averages.

Ans: (A) Co-variance between the variables divided by the product of their standard deviations and N.

**61. Parametric data can be obtained by using: [GSET]**

(A) Nominal scale and interval scale.

(B) Ordinal scale and ratio scale.

(C) Nominal scale and ordinal scale.

(D) Interval scale and ratio scale.

Ans: (D) Interval scale and ratio scale.

**62. When data are classified on the basis of descriptive characteristics or on the basis of attributes, the classification is called: [GSET]**

(A) Chronological classification.

(B) Qualitative classification.

(C) Quantitative classification.

(D) Spatial classification.

Ans: (B) Qualitative classification.

**63. Find out the correct match between the items of the following: [GSET]**

List I |
List II |

(a) Probability of a true null hyposis being rejected by a test. (b) Standard deviation of a sampling distribution of mean. (c) Comparing average performance of items belonging to more than two sample groups simultaneously. (d) Testing the significance of the association between two attributes. |
(1) Chi-square test. (2) t-test. (3) ANOVA. (4) Standard error of mean. (5) Level of significance. |

Codes:

(A) (a)-(1), (b)-(3), (c)-(4), (d)-(5).

(B) (a)-(5), (b)-(4), (c)-(3), (d)-(1).

(C) (a)-(4), (b)-(3), (c)-(2), (d)-(1).

(D) (a)-(4), (b)-(5), (c)-(2), (d)-(3).

Ans: (B) (a)-(5), (b)-(4), (c)-(3), (d)-(1).

**64. ****If the regression coefficients byx and bxy are 0.80 and 0.45 respectively, the value of the coefficient of correlation will be: [GSET]**

(A) 0.36.

(B) 0.60.

(C) 0.06.

(D) 0.56.

Ans: (B) 0.60.

**65. Which one is the correct order of statistical data? [GSET]**

(A) Collection, Analysis, Presentation and Interpretation of data.

(B) Interpretation, Analysis, Presentation and Collection of data.

(C) Collection, Presentation Analysis and Interpretation of data.

(D) Analysis, Collection, Interpretation and Presentation of data.

Ans: (C) Collection, Presentation Analysis and Interpretation of data.

**66. Questionnaire technique of data collection can be used when the respondents are: [GSET]**

(A) Literates.

(B) Illiterates.

(C) Liberates and illiterates.

(D) None of the above.

Ans: (A) Literates.

**67. If the sample size increases, the sampling error: [GSET]**

(A) Increases,

(B) Decreases.

(C) Remains constant.

(D) May increase or decrease or remain constant.

Ans: (B) Decreases.

**68. We can estimate the value of ‘Y’ for a given value of ‘X’ by: [GSET]**

(A) the regression equation of Y on X.

(B) the regression equation of X on Y.

(C) the regression equation of Y and X.

(D) the regression equation of X or Y.

Ans: (A) the regression equation of Y on X.

**69. Match List I with List II and choose the correct option from the codes given below it: [GSET]**

List I |
List II |

(1) Different items having common characteristics are brought together. (2) Systematic arrangement of statistical data in columns and rows. (3) Classification of data as number of males and females in sample. (4) Classification of number of students according to height. |
(a) Quantitative classification. (b) Qualitative classification. (c) Tabulation of data. . (d) Classification of Data. |

Codes:

(A) (1)-(a), (2)-(b), (3)-(c), (4)-(d).

(B) (1)-(b), (2)-(a), (3)-(d), (4)-(c).

(C) (1)-(c), (2)-(d), (3)-(a), (4)-(b).

(D) (1)-(d), (2)-(c), (3)-(b), (4)-(a).

Ans: (D) (1)-(d), (2)-(c), (3)-(b), (4)-(a).

**70. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below it: [GSET]**

List I |
List II |

(1) Lottery method of selection of sample. (2) Selecting sample from complete list and first item to be selected randomly and thereafter to be selected with evenly spaced interval. (3) Sample to be selected from particular state of predetermined house-holds. |
(a) Multi-stage sampling. (b) Simple random sampling.
(c) Systematic random sampling. |

Codes:

(A) (1)-(a), (2)-(b), (3)-(c).

(B) (1)-(b), (2)-(c), (3)-(a).

(C) (1)-(c), (2)-(a), (3)-(b).

(D) (1)-(a), (2)-(c), (3)-(b).

Ans: (B) (1)-(b), (2)-(c), (3)-(a).

**72. If in a regression line y = a + bx, where b is zero, then the regression line will: [GSET]**

(A) pass through the origin.

(B) be parallel to X-axis.

(C) be parallel to Y-axis.

(D) have the same intersection point on X-axis as well as Y-axis.

Ans: (B) be parallel to X-axis.

**73. Which one of the following software is used for research analysis? [GSET]**

(A) SAP.

(B) ERP.

(C) SPSS.

(D) TALLY.

Ans: (C) SPSS.

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